Ariel Sharon - Biography Chapters
Ariel Sharon - Biography Chapters
1928-1947 Childhood and Youth
1948 Independence War
1953 Retribution Acts (Pe'ulot Tagmul)
1956 The Sinai War
1956-1967 Difficult Years
1967 Six-Day War
1967-1970 Defense Strategist
1971 War against Terrorism
1973 End of Military Career?
1973 October War (Yom Kippur War)
1975-1977 A Rookie Politician
1977-1982 Settlements vs. Peace
1981 Israel attack Iraq's nuclear plant
1982 The Lebanon War
1990-1992 Construction Bulldozer
2000 Visit to the Temple Mount
Sharon Prime Minister Elect
Sharon's Disengagement Plan
2005 Ariel Sharon's Stroke Drama
2006 Ariel Sharon Died - Fact or Rumor?
2006 Latest News on Ariel Sharon's Condition
2006 Ariel Sharon - Israel Prize Nomination
2013 Is Ariel Sharon waking up from his coma?
1953 Retribution Acts (Pe'ulot Tagmul)
On 1950 Ariel Sharon is trained as a regiment
commander and later becomes chief intelligence officer of the Northern
Command. Sharon is frustrated by the weakness and helplessness of Israel in
the face of Arab incursions in Israeli communities.
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At that time, Moshe Dayan is appointed Head of the Northern Command and asks
Sharon to look into the possibility of abducting two Jordanian Legion
soldiers in response to the kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers. Sharon does
not waist time. He acts that same night. He goes with another soldier,
Shlomo Gruber, to Sheikh Hussein Bridge, which is over the Jordan River.
Sharon and Gruber sneak close to the Jordanian guard hut, capture two
guards, and smuggle them at gun point back to the Israeli side. Sharon then
goes to Moshe Dayan's chamber and reports that two Jordanian soldiers are
locked in the confinement facility. Dayan is astounded by Sharon's swift and
successful action and praises him.
On 1952 Sharon takes a leave from the army and begins to study Middle East
history in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. During this time as a
student, Sharon is appointed commander of a reserve regiment in the
Jerusalem Brigade. In this capacity, he takes action against the women
villagers of Katana, who cross the border to Israel on their way to draw
water from a well. Sharon orders his troops to ambush the women and in
addition deploys a mortar unit nearby, in case the Jordanian artillery will
respond to the shooting. Everything goes as planned. That night, four
Israeli officers kill two women villagers on their way draw water from the
well. Jordanian mortar units open fire on Israeli communities, and Sharon's
mortar unit fires back. UN inspectors, who are there to maintain the cease
fire, put an end to the incident.
Sharon's frustration keeps building, as IDF squads fail to efficiently
respond to Arab hostility and the government tends to favor restraint to
On June 1953, Golani Brigade commander, Mishael Shaham, gets the General
Headquarter's permission to act against the Arab village of Nebi Samuel, in
which resides Mustafa Samuel, head of an Arab militia. Shaham asks Sharon to
form a squad and attack Mustafa Samuel. Sharon acts immediately. He recruits
seven men. They are briefed, handed guns and ammunition and are on their
way. Sharon and his men succeed only partially – they detonate one building
at the outskirts of the village and then return. Shaham, however, is
pleased. In light of what other IDF squads have achieved, it is considered a
success: Sharon's force reached the target, detonated a building and safely
returned to base.
Following this operation, Shaham asks David Ben Gurion's military secretary
to authorize the forming of a special force which would operate beyond the
cease fire lines, as retribution for the Arab aggression. The General
Headquarters is convened and authorizes the request. Moshe Dayan, Head of
Operations Department in IDF, appoints Ariel Sharon to command this special
force. Sharon quits his history studies and recruits about 40 soldiers who
would form the new commando force - Unit 101. Unit 101's mission is to
infiltrate into neighboring Jordan and Gaza and mount reprisal raids against
Arab civilians and troops.
For several months Sharon trains the soldiers and then gradually sends them
to patrol and ambush missions beyond the border. Ariel Sharon proves to be a
a natural leader. He knows how to make his troops feel that everything
depends on them; that if they don't do it, no one will. He demonstrates
initiative and resourcefulness, planning and originality.The soldiers carry
out their missions dressed as civilians, with no radios, no medics and no
rescue plans. At the same time Sharon tries to get a green light from the
General Headquarters to launch a large scale operation.
On September 1953 the General Headquarters orders Unit 101 to drive Bedouins
out from the Negev and push them southward to Sinai. Unit 101 soldiers act
aggressively: they raid the Bedouin camp, shooting aimlessly, confiscating
arms and burning tents. The Bedouins run away, leaving many wounded behind.
For a few days Unit 101 pursuits the Bedouins until they are out of the
Ariel Sharon relentlessly asks the General Headquarters to authorize more
retribution acts in the face of Arab incursions from Gaza and Sinai. The
General Headquarters gives the go-ahead to attack Al-Bureij refugee camp in
Gaza. Unit 101 attacks. 15 Arabs are dead, among them women and children.
When the operation results are analyzed, Sharon blatantly dismisses
criticism by Unit 101 soldiers for killing innocent civilians. He says: "The
women are whores. They serve the Arab militia men who infiltrate into our
communities and attack the citizens of our country. If we don't act against
the refugee camp, it would become a murderers' nest."
On the night of October 13, 1953, Arab militia men called Fedayeen,
infiltrate into the Israeli village of Yahud and kill Suzanne Kinyas and two
of her children in their sleep. This murderous attack brings the toll of
Israeli civilian victims to 124. IDF's high command singles out the
Jordanian village of Qibia as the target for the retribution act. This
village is known to harbor terrorists. Ariel Sharon, Unit 101 commander,
gets orders to attack the village, capture it temporarily, detonate houses,
and cause as much casualties as possible.
An operation force is formed. It comprises of a paratrooper company and Unit
101. Sharon goes to Qibya with 600 Kilograms of explosives.
In Qibya, Sharon's soldiers detonate 45 houses without thoroughly checking
first that they are empty. They presume that everyone had escaped. As a
result, 69 people are dead; half of them women and children who hid in the
detonated houses. On the Israeli side there are no casualties other than one
soldier who's slightly wounded.
Shimon Kahaner, one of the fighters in Unit 101, says: "Qibya was a case
when things went differently than planned. What happened there is that once
the village was taken over, many of the men ran away. They let the women and
the children in the homes. We didn't employ the method which we adopted
later of checking the houses before exploding them. Once our troops saw that
the men left, they called people out and when they stopped coming out, the
houses were blown up and apparently there were women and children in some of
Ariel Sharon's version is this: "I was myself there with the Unit, and I
myself checked most of the buildings that were destroyed, and I didn't see
On October 19, 1953, Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion blatantly lies
to the nation in a radio broadcast and says that no IDF unit had left its
base on the night of the attack on Qibya and that it seems as though it was
done by a group of local Israeli villagers.
After the attack on Qibya, Sharon keeps sending Unit 101 squads to limited
patrol missions, deep in enemy territory.
Unit 101 soldiers develop a deep sense of brotherhood but at the same time
they also develop a sense of arrogance and contempt for other IDF forces.
One Saturday, Military Police pulls over a Unit 101 soldier for driving an
army car without proper authorization. The soldier is angry and talks down
to the MP's. The hot-headed MP's take the soldier out of the car and beat
him. The soldier then gathers his friends from Unit 101 and they go on a
vengeance mission and beat the Military Police officers in their head
quarters in Tiberias. This incident is investigated but the assaulting
soldiers from Unit 101 go unpunished.
On January 1954, Chief of Staff Moshe Dayan merges Unit 101 with the
paratroopers regiment and appoints Ariel Shraon as commander of this
reinforced regiment. Sharon introduces a very demanding training schedule,
including long marches, cross country running, hand to hand combat, and
simulating movement in enemy zone. Soon the regiment enjoys a reputation of
an elite force.
During the first months under Sharon's command, the regiment conducts patrol
missions and small scale raids in Jordan. In one of these operations Sharon
gets hit in his thigh by a bullet.
An irregular incident takes place on the night of March 4, 1955, when
several senior regiment officers, under the leadership of Meir Har Tzion, go
to Jordan to avenge the killing of Har Tzion's sister by Arab militia men.
Har Tzion and his fellow men capture five Bedouins and slit their throats.
Meir Har Tzion is arrested and investigated for this personal revenge. Three
weeks later he is released. Meir Amit, Head of General Headquarters
Department, questions Sharon about assisting Har Tzion logistically. Sharon
On 1955 a series of horrendous terrorist acts is committed against the
Israeli population by Fedayeen. Public pressure is built to retaliate with
great force. On February 1955, paratroopers under Ariel Sharon's command
raid an Egyptian military base in Gaza, kill 38 soldiers and wound four.
Eight Israeli paratroopers are dead. The attack brings Egyptian President,
Gamal Abdel Nasser, to the conclusion that there's no chance of achieving
peace with Israel.
On October 27, 1955, the paratroopers regiment is on a mission to capture
the Kuntila Fortress in Sinai, deep in Egyptian territory. The force kills
ten Egyptian soldiers and captures twenty nine. Casualties on the Israeli
side: two dead, two wounded.
On December 1955 Sharon is assigned to plan an attack on Syrian posts near
the Sea of Galilee, in response to Syrian shooting on Israeli fishermen.
Sharon commands a complex operation force, including infantry, paratroopers
and air and naval support. The force kills 56 Syrian soldiers, wounds 32 and
captures 2. Casualties on the Israeli side: 6 dead, 12 wounded.
IDF is reorganized and the paratroopers regiment becomes the 202nd
Paratroopers Brigade. On the night of October 10, 1956, the brigade is on a
mission to attack the Kalkilia Police compound on Jordan territory, in
response to the killing of three Jewish workers by Jordanian infiltrators.
IDF launches an artillery weakening blow. Then, a paratroopers regiment
under the command of Mordechai Gur (Motta) captures the police compound,
clears it and detonates it. A Jordanian reinforcement is on its way, but is
stopped by an Israeli ambush set by Yehuda Reshef's regiment. Reshef's
regiment pushes the Jordanian reinforcement back, and retreats. But then
Reshef realizes that he is surrounded by enemy units. Israeli artillery
tries to push back the Jordanian forces which encircle Reshef's soldiers but
to no avail. Sharon quickly sends a rescue team, but on their way back with
Reshef's regiment they fall into a Jordanian ambush. It takes a fierce
battle to overcome the Jordanian force and return to the Israeli side. End
result of this operation: 88 Jordanian soldiers are dead. IDF Casualties: 18
dead, and more then 50 wounded. The Kalkilia operation is the last
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Ariel Sharon Biography Books
Sharon: A life
by Nir Hefetz and Gadi Bloom
Review: The Jerusalem Post
by Ariel Sharon and David
The Real Legacy of Ariel Sharon
by Baruch Kimmerling
by Norman H. Finkelstein
Ariel Sharon Web Biographies
Official biography - Israel's PMO
Jewish Virtual Library
Sharon in Zionism
Ariel Sharon Web Resources
articles by Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon's Last Interview - Nikkei
Maker or Peace Breaker - CNN
Oz on Ariel Sharon - Ynet
Obama Timeline - read about Barack Obama, family and parents of
Barack Obama and about Barack Obama's campaign